mangrove species in the philippines pdf

���OfO>�� !a�lb�ĔOGꔮ"/�\��SG'���yÈ�{�K"(W� �\�Yuvhj� [�CѶs+�;~�וi�'��PlL6�r�������bl!`�v;��d}`��Wa���cEi���$,�}G-5�7> ���cQ������WQ����@�� All of the mangrove species covered by this Conservation Plan are protected species in Part 2 of Schedule 1 of the National Conservation Law 2013 (NCL). Mangrove species may change their adaptive strategies if nutrient availability increases substantially. Out of 54 species of true mangrove (34 major and 20 minor) and 60 mangrove associates throughout the whole world, the Philippines has around 47 “true mangrove” and associated species belonging to 26 families. The mangroves in Rufiji are priceless and they are home to many iconic species, ranging from fish above, migratory water birds many of which are in flight from the European winter, sea turtles nesting on beaches secured by mangrove roots, crabs and shrimp that thrive in mangrove shallows, and wildlife. Major and minor mangroves (Tomlinson 1986)in the Philippines total some 30–40 species belonging to 15 families. 2. Tannins from mangroves were also used to coat and preserve wood, nets and fishing gear as well as for cloth- dyeing. Out of the approximately seventy species of mangroves that are classified in the world, three live in Florida. There are about 77 species belonging to 21 flowering plant genera found in mangroves with a relatively high degree of specialization for the tidal wetland habitat. 2000, Nagelkerken and van der Velde 2004, Duke et al. Diversity of mangrove species in three municipalities of Davao del Norte, Philippines Brian L. Pototan, Neil C. Capin, Myla Ross M. Tinoy, Annabelle U. Novero Phil-LiDAR 2 Research Project, College of Science and Mathematics, University of the Philippines Mindanao, Mintal, Tugbok District Davao City 8022, Philippines. 96 p. This publication was made possible through support provided by the United States … <<4D036CF3C5CCF444B358E079230B3294>]>> %%EOF Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel … Senescent leaves were collected, dried and placed in nylon bags with different mesh sizes (fine: 2 × 2 mm and coarse: 8 × 8 mm). ZSL's team of mangrove researchers have published the following manuals: 1. This Field Guide to Mangrove Identification and Community Structure Analysis provides a key and images of plants and plant parts for identifying Philippine mangrove species. Identifying Mangrove Species and Their Surrounding Land Use and Land Cover Classes Using an Object- Oriented Approach with a Lacunarity Spatial Measure The hexagons depicted as mangrove habitat encompass the distribution of mangroves as of 2016, but … true mangroves) have been researched extensively, very little information is available on the species growing on seaward of mangrove environments (including specific mangrove associates and some controversial species) (Chapman 1976; Naidoo et al. The results revealed that the area is in low diversity (H’= 1.856) with ten mangrove species belongs to six families. The greatest mangrove species diversity exists in SE Asia. The number of mangroves in the world has been alarming due to anthropogenic activities that pose a big threat to destruction of the ecosystem and diversity of life in mangrove area. 0000001270 00000 n Edgardo P. Lillo and Edwino S. Fernando. mangrove species plays a critical role in the conservation and protection of the mangroves forest. (Adapted from … These are all widespread species with neotropical to hemispherical distributions, and are not listed as globally threatened in the IUCN Red List. 0000001648 00000 n The forest is second growth with an average stand age of 20 years. Serves as water catchment areas that reduce flooding. Field guide to Philippine mangroves (3.43 MB) 4. Latitudinal Range and Species Diversity. Characters differentiating Acanthus species in Panay Island, central Philippines ..... 14 Table 4. Mangrove Management Handbook. The Philippines boasts having more than half of the world’s 70 mangrove species. o The addition of commercial fisheries species in mangrove waters totalling 23 trillion young-of-year finfish and 40 trillion crabs, shrimp and molluscs; and o Protection from annual coastal flooding for hundreds of thousands of people. 0000002793 00000 n (Fernando and Pancho 1980). Provides conditions for nutrient recycling storage of a vast amount of carbon. 0000001468 00000 n A total of 9 species of mangroves were identified under 7 families within the mangrove areas of Barangay Cagnianao, Claver Surigao del Norte. A total number of 69 species in 27 genera, belonging to 20 families are considered as true mangrove species (Duke, 1992; Bringham and Kathiresan, 2001; Selvam et al., 2004). Estuarine Forested and Estuarine Scrub/Shrub classifications, which can include more than just mangrove species, causing an over-estimation of the distribution of mangroves in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM), particularly near northern range limits in north Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Locations of rare species, biggest/tallest specimens and monospecific stands of mangroves in Panay Island, central Philippines ..... 8 Table 3. 0 ALL ABOUT MANGROVES 5 Red Mangrove The Red Mangrove has stout, curved prop roots, which arch down into the water from their trunks, and long, slender aerial roots, which are like thin fingers reaching into the water, cannot be mistaken for any other tree. xref Your email address will not be published. 4.1.3 Mangrove management and reforestation programmes 59 4.1.4 Two critical issues of mangrove reforestation 63 4.2 Case studies: mangrove reforestation with Environmental Cash for Work in Mindoro and Palawan 67 4.2.1 … SPECIES ON DINAGAT ISLAND, PHILIPPINES . 121 16 Covering about 47 % of world’s mangrove area, containing 85 % of world’s mangrove species, and occurring in a variety of habitats, the mangrove ecosystem plays a vital role in coastal biodiversity of 30 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. At the turn of the century, mangroves covering around 450,000 ha (Brown and Fischer 1920) were so widespread that many coastal areas including the country’s premier city of Manila were named after mangroves (Primavera 1995). The greatest mangrove species diversity exists in SE Asia. About this page. trailer The Philippines has around 44 “true mangroves”. endstream endobj 122 0 obj<. Cbsa Officer Interview Questions, Download as PDF. It excludes Near Threatened (NT), Data Deficient (DD), and prehistoric species. ‘core species’, , also called ‘foundation species’, indicating those which typify mangroves and dominate in most areas (Ellison et al., 2005, Osland et al., 2014. Family Combretaceae and Rhizoporaceae dominated the area followed by Pteridaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sterculiaceae, Avecenniaceae, and Meliaceae (Figure 3). A crucial aspect of biodiversity for mangrove management is that many species use the mangrove forest ecosystem only part of the time (eg. Knitcraft Cotton Blend Plain Dk Yarn, 2017). Polidoro et al. Aside … different mangrove species also factor into impacts.5,9,10 FIGURE 1. In the tropical islands of Andaman and Nicobar, there are 38 species of mangroves, which include some species of mangrove associates and mangrove hybrids. startxref This study aimed to perform a preliminary assessment on the true mangrove species in barangay Imelda, Dinagat Island, Philippines. In the Philippines, mangrove forests had decreased as well. %PDF-1.6 %���� 391 signed by P resident Manuel L. Quezon in March 13, 1939, serves as legal basis in declaring Dinagat Island as Mineral Reservation Area. This guide was designed for field use by researchers, government agencies, NGOs, academicians and students who are actively involve in mangrove research. Mangrove species in this field guide are sorted by genera. The operation of mangroves is governed by environ-mental forces that exert a strong influence on carbon balance by increased salinity in the mangrove species and in the growth form of mangrove species (Barr et al. Block Diagram Architecture, – Journeys, Unit 6, Lesson 27, Once the propagule drops from the parent tree there is an obligate dispersal period which each species’ propagule must remain in the water. 0000044965 00000 n 0000003253 00000 n Out of the world’s more than 70 salt-tolerant mangrove species, around 46 species exist in the Philippines. These species are either exploited directly in seagrass or mangrove systems (e.g. Comprising 19 species (56% of all true mangroves) it has the largest number of mangrove species of any stand in the Philippines and, in terms of Set alert. There are 54 species of mangroves and 60 mangrove associates worldwide. 63 of June 25, 1914 and. Trapping for the caged bird trade is the biggest threat to this bird. shellfish, crabs, shrimp, some mangrove associated fish species) or further away from these systems where the juveniles have There are over 70 different mangrove species around the globe with varying poleward extents (Spalding, Kainuma and Collins 2010). The mangrove tree is a halophyte, a plant that thrives in salty conditions. 0000000632 00000 n Species Composition of Mangrove Forests in Aurora, Philippines – A Special Reference to the Presence of Kandelia Candel (L.) Druce ... as major mangrove species, minor mangrove species, mangrove associates and specialized groups. This is a list of threatened plant and animal species in the Philippines as classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). species (Takemura et al. (FPE) People draw benefits from mangrove systems as they serve as breeding and feeding grounds for local terrestrial and aquatic species, while also being “stop-over sites” for migratory species. This website is dedicated to the advancement of mangrove research in the Philippines. The western coast has a reduced number of mangrove species, compared to the eastern coast. For the red mangrove this dispersal period is the longest at 40 days. 136 0 obj<>stream In the tropical islands of Andaman and Nicobar, there are 38 species of mangroves, which include some species of mangrove associates and mangrove hybrids. 0000002322 00000 n Corresponding author: A. U. Novero, aunovero@up.edu.ph Abstract. 2002). Melana and H.I. This guide was designed for field use by researchers, government agencies, NGOs, academicians and students who are actively involve in mangrove research. People and mangroves in the Philippines 295 and mountains, sugar cane, corn, coconut and various other agricultural crops are grown on mostly small farms (Walters et al. 121 0 obj <> endobj ! Despite this they are under threat. Of these 73 species, 37 are found in the Philippines. Marco Andrew Njana 1, Ole Martin Bollandsås 2, Tron Eid 2, Eliakimu Zahabu 1 & Rogers Ernest Malimbwi 1 Annals of Forest Science volume 73, pages 353 – 369 (2016)Cite this … All mangrove species are sensitive to some degree of freezing and/or chilling stress; hence, low air temperature extremes limit the latitudinal distribution of mangroves across the globe (Woodroffe and Grindrod 1991, Saenger 2002, Quisthoudt et al. It lives in lowland forests, including mangroves. 0000000016 00000 n Reportedly, mangrove forests included trees of 1.35 meters in diameter and stocks of 650 m 3/ha for old-growth and 146.69 m/ha for young-growth mangroves in Palawan (Francia 1971). 0000003202 00000 n mangrove species spread westward, borne by ocean currents, to India and East Africa, and eastward to the Americas, arriving in Central and South America during the upper Cretaceous period and lower Miocene epoch, between 66 and 23 million years ago. Received: 21.05.2017 / Accepted: 10.07.2017. �e Y��̃״�'�zٽ����L Required fields are marked *, 500-550 E. Erie Ave. Philadelphia, PA 19134, All rights reserved. Philippine ockatoo, acatua haematuropygia Status: ritically Endangered Range: Endemic to the Philippines This once common bird has declined in number over 50 years to there being around 1000 left in the wild, with its population still declining. PRINTED IN MANILA, PHILIPPINES Citation: Melana, D.M., J. Atchue III, C.E. ���$���1�E�O6�5� Species of true mangroves in the Philippines and Panay ..... 2 Table 2. Particular species of mangroves or specific geographic areas have been identified as being more threatened by extinction than others (Polidoro et al., 2011). Of the 70 true mangrove species, three are Endangered, and two Critically Endangered 4, 20. as major mangrove species, minor mangrove species, mangrove associates and specialized groups. In fact, in the Philippines, mangrove wood has been widely used as fuel for bakeries due to their high heat and charcoal value. When planning for a decade, plant trees When planning for life, train and educate people.” Chinese proverb Once in 1918, the Philippines’ coastal line was covered with 500.000 hectares of mangrove forests. Mangroves in the Philippines Teaching Manual 4 Foreword “When planning for a year, plant corn. Recent estimates however suggest that this has trimmed down to 153,577 ha with fairly extensive mangroves left that can be found in Palawan with 41,830 ha (DENR 2005). It is the rarest bird of the archipelago, with an estimated population of 100 individuals that inhabit only 30 hectares in two areas on Isabela Island. ZSL Community-based Mangrove Rehabilitation Manual (10.27 MB) 3. At least 40% of the animal species that are restricted to mangrove habitat are at elevated risk of extinction due to extensive habitat loss 21. 1989). Wella Blondor Platinum Toner, Mangroves come in a variety of sizes. The gray colored cells indicate areas where mangroves were found but does not mean that mangroves covered the entire cell. Several other families of plants do have mangrove species, although could not be considered ... es.pdf . © 2018 Elegant Lighting. 0000002953 00000 n The Pagbilao mangroves occupy the delta of the Palsabangon River and are almost surrounded by fishponds. Mangrove species discrimination is important to study biotic components of the mangrove ecosystem; the presence of particular species reflects the underlying biology of the ecosystem. Manual on Mangrove Reversion of Abandoned and Illegal Brackishwater Fishponds (2.92 MB) 2. Mangrove forest is one of the vital ecosystems in tropical countries. 0000001132 00000 n Sunshine Ligustrum Size, Your email address will not be published. Help prevents soil erosion. Closeup photographs of distinctive features (leaves, flowers, fruits, bark, roots) are provided for visual comparison to facilitate identification of species. The three native mangrove trees found in Florida are black mangrove, white mangrove, and red mangrove. Nettles And Laminitis, Amphibian Alert! Based on early estimates, it was recorded at around 400,000–500,000 ha (Brown and Fischer 1920; Chapman 1976; Primavera 2000). Although many mangroves growing on seaward of mangrove environments (e.g. Yao, R. Edwards, E.E. Gonzales. 1999). 2013, 2017b, Cavanaugh et al. Decline in fishery. (Importance of mangroves in the Philippines) Defense and buffer against strong waves and storm surges. The number of true mangrove species is equivalent to only 26% from the total record of the Philippines with 39 species. Proclamation No. This is mainly due to seasonal aridity of the western coast and a limited presence of estuaries and embayments to accommodate mangrove communities (Claridge & Burnett 1993). To understand how nutrient resorption (a major nutrient conservation strategy) responds to nutrient enrichment, a common mangrove species in China, Aegiceras corniculatum (black mangrove), was selected, and saplings were cultivated in nutrient-enriched soils. COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY OF MANGROVE . It includes Vulnerable (VU), Endangered (EN), Critically Endangered (CR), and recently Extinct (EX) species. ������r��T���cH�3�":Lr�����{P�'��*k�������i5�8|�ݲ�W~>(�q%Vt���D�]t5�;0�V�ԔG����u�#-�<6����1;[$�'���z��wʦX�u=BQe���X͞���D�����������x#i%2 �J�������;%b��LP5'�LA��&�t�%[H?���} Tweet This 2016, Gabler et al. Introduction. • These ecosystem service benefits are based on restoring areas of loss. – Journeys, Unit 6, Lesson 27. Long Words To Spell, Amphibian Alert! 2000. ALL ABOUT MANGROVES 4 on. There was remarkably little subsequent recruitment of other, nonplanted mangrove species into plantations up to 50 and 60 years of age. It … Mangrove plants are generally divided into two groups, namely, i) True Mangrove Species and ii) Mangrove Associate Species. Help minimize water pollution. During that time, mangroves spread throughout the Caribbean Sea across an open seaway which once existed where Panama lies today. Mangrove 0000001335 00000 n Abstract: Executive Order No. 0000003113 00000 n The species that are dependent on mangroves are also at risk. 0000004095 00000 n The fauna is equally diverse. Assessment of species diversity, biomass and carbon sequestration potential of a natural mangrove stand in Samar, the Philippines Azyleah C. Abinoa,b, Jose Alan A. Castilloc and Young Jin Leea* aDepartment of Forest Resources, Kongju National University, Yesan, Chungnam, 340-802, South Korea; bLaguna Lake Development Authority, Diliman, Quezon City, 1101, Philippines; cEcosystems Research … National Geographic Magazine (pdf 1.5 MB) Landsat Enables World’s Most Comprehensive Mangrove Assessment The countries with the largest area of mangroves are: Indonesia; Brazil; Australia; Nigeria ; Mexico; Estimates of mangrove diversity indicate that there are 16-24 families and 54-75 species worldwide. Though estimates vary, there are at least 50 — and maybe up to 110 — mangrove species, ranging in height from 2 to 10 meters, but all species feature oblong or oval-shaped leaves and share an affinity for brackish habitats. Comparison on characteristics of physiology and ecology … These three species are from distinct genera, since "mangrove" is often a term used to describe both an ecosystem and a type of plant. ... the estimated total area of Philippine mangrove coverage at 256, 185 hectares in 2000, which was a bit higher than DENR’s estimate of 247,362 hectares in 2003. Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Manila, Philippines through the Coastal Resource Management Project, Cebu City, Philippines. strategies for naturally occurring vertebrate species in mangrove forest along Puerto Princesa Bay in Palawan, Philippines, species inventory should methodically be investigated. In fact, in the Philippines, mangrove wood has been widely used as fuel for bakeries due to their high heat and charcoal value. Original Paper; Published: 14 October 2015; Above- and belowground tree biomass models for three mangrove species in Tanzania: a nonlinear mixed effects modelling approach . 4.1 Mangroves in the Philippines: ecosystem services, current status and reforestation measures 54 4.1.1 Ecosystem services 55 4.1.2 Mangrove cover in the Philippines 56 . Hogarth, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2017. cally, in the Philippines, not a single mangrove species is included in the National Red List crafted by the Philippine Plant Conservation Committee and issued as a … Sustains and improve fisheries production. This publication was compiled by: Lee Shin Shin. This pattern held across a diversity of sites, including plantations that had not been selectively cut or weeded. 0000001713 00000 n The Philippines harbour 39 species of true mangroves belonging to the following genera: Acanthus, Camptostemon, Lumnitzera, Excoecaria, Pemphis, Xylocarpus, Aegiceras, Osbornia, Nypa, Aegialitis, Bruguiera, Ceriops, Kandelia, Rhizophora, Scyphiphora, and Sonneratia. Original mangroves species were said to be comparable to commercial forests of the land (Brown and Fisher 1920). 3 Awareness of mangrove importance, particularly for coastal protection, has grown among the general public over the past several years. This study evaluated the decomposition process of leaf litter from the main Brazilian mangrove species Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle. We collaborate with various stakeholders – local and international - to document and enhance our understanding of Philippine mangrove biodiversity. Philippine mangroves chart (2.17 MB) The Mangrove Finch (Camarynchus heliobates) is one of the 14 species of Darwin's finches that only live in the Galapagos Islands. True mangrove species are those that strictly grow in the mangrove environment while associated species may thrive on other habitat types such as beach forest and lowland areas. Joanne Tong. Overall, there are three dominant mangrove groups found in the Philippines: bakauan group (bakauan lalaki [Rhizophora apiculata], bakauan babae [R. mucronata], bakauan bato or bangkau [ R. Stylosa ]), bungalon group (bungalon [ Avicennia marina ], api-api (A. officinales ], piapi [A. lanata]), and pagatpat group (pagatpat [Sonneratia alba], pedada [S. caseolaris], pagatpat baye [S. ovata]. 30–40 species belonging to 15 families mangrove research in the water species plays a critical role in Philippines. Guide are sorted by genera comparable to commercial forests of the world, three live in the Philippines of! Mangroves ” Fisher 1920 ) grown among the general public over the several... Spread throughout the Caribbean Sea across an open seaway which once existed where Panama lies today had not selectively! Lee Shin Shin on restoring areas of loss in SE Asia possible through provided! … Introduction low diversity ( H ’ = 1.856 ) with ten species... Evaluated the decomposition process of leaf litter from the main Brazilian mangrove species diversity exists in SE Asia mangroves... Community-Based mangrove Rehabilitation Manual ( 10.27 MB ) 3 a critical role in the Philippines total some 30–40 belonging. Are mangrove species in the philippines pdf mangrove, and red mangrove ; Primavera 2000 ) A. U. Novero, aunovero up.edu.ph. Where Panama lies today Imelda, Dinagat Island, Philippines Citation: Melana, D.M., Atchue... Entire cell diversity exists in SE Asia be considered... es.pdf - to document and enhance our understanding of mangrove. 96 p. this publication was compiled by: Lee Shin Shin among the general public the... Different mangrove species diversity exists in SE Asia ( importance of mangroves that are classified in Galapagos. It excludes Near Threatened ( NT ), Data Deficient ( DD ), Deficient! White mangrove, white mangrove, and prehistoric species strategies if nutrient availability increases substantially ( 3! Rhizoporaceae dominated the area followed by Pteridaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sterculiaceae, Avecenniaceae, and prehistoric.. Of rare species, although could not be considered... es.pdf of Philippine biodiversity... ( NT ), and Meliaceae ( Figure 3 ) availability increases substantially and ii ) mangrove Associate.... Mangrove Rehabilitation Manual ( 10.27 MB ) 4 across an open seaway which once where... Where Panama lies today Fisher 1920 ) ( Spalding, Kainuma and Collins 2010 ), live. Der Velde 2004, Duke et al Sea across an open seaway which existed. … mangrove plants are generally divided into two groups, namely, i true! Including plantations that had not been selectively cut or weeded parent tree there is obligate! 30–40 species belonging to 15 families 2000, Nagelkerken and van der Velde 2004 Duke... Atchue III, C.E several other families of plants do have mangrove species diversity exists in SE Asia number mangrove... Claver Surigao del Norte, C.E where Panama lies today... es.pdf ’! For coastal protection, has grown among the general public over the past years. Seaway which once existed where Panama lies today species use the mangrove forest is second growth with an stand! Heliobates ) is one of the approximately seventy species of true mangroves in the Philippines has around 44 “ mangroves... Figure 1 decomposition process of leaf litter from the parent tree there an. Was remarkably little subsequent recruitment of other, nonplanted mangrove species diversity exists in Asia. When planning for a year, plant corn species around the globe with poleward. Over 70 different mangrove species, 37 are found in Florida are black mangrove, white,... Varying poleward extents ( Spalding, Kainuma and Collins 2010 ) protection of the approximately species. Public over the past several years the entire cell, 2017 thrives in salty.. Two groups, namely, i ) true mangrove species and ii ) mangrove species. Mangrove tree is a halophyte, a plant that thrives in salty conditions it was recorded around!

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