quantitative research article on depression

To assess the possible moderating effect of the level of depression, multi-group analyses were conducted within MPLUS 7. Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan, Affiliation: Miyata Eye Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan, Affiliation: The HADS questionnaire has been validated by more than 70 studies and more than 1400 reports [23]. Next, differences between both groups for the relations between model variables were tested per direct path, also using the chi-square difference test. We would like to thank Maria Kovacs and MHS for their generosity in letting us use the CDI-2. Bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD) are mental disorders with a 12-month prevalence in the EU of about 1 and 7%, respectively [1]. Each of the 7 questions for anxiety and 7 for depression was scored on a four-point scale (0–3), and the final scores ranged from 0 to 21 for each subscale. Participants were veterans who were discharged home following a new stroke. [1,2] In addition, the global socioeconomic costs for dementia were estimated to be US$818 billion in 2015, with a 144% increase to US$2 trillion by 2030. Stressful health threatening life events correlated weakly with other-blame, which did not significantly correlate with depressive symptoms. A well-established predictor of depressive symptoms is the experience of a stressful life event [9], like a romantic break up. For clinically depressed adolescents, however, it is unclear as yet whether this is also true. Within the whole sample more depressive symptoms were significantly associated with: self-blame, catastrophizing, rumination, positive reappraisal and refocus on planning (Fig 2). PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, Health threatening and relational challenging stressful life events showed weak to moderate correlations with depressive symptoms. This study sought to determine the prevalence of postpartum depression and interventions utilized for its management in a Health facility in Ghana. The degree of depressive symptoms was measured with the Child Depression Inventory-2 [46,47], a revision of the CDI [48,49]. Stressful life events during childhood have repeatedly been found to be associated with an increased risk of developing mental disorders during adulthood [25–27]. In conclusion, the state of depression is closely related to visual functions in RP patients in Japan. The data were analyzed with the SPSS Statistics 21.0.0.1 software as a statistical plan to investigate factors related to HADS-A or HADS-D. Spearman’s correlation analysis was used to determine the significance of the correlations between the HADS-A or HADS-D score and the BCVA of the better eye, of the worse eye, the FAS, FFS, FVS, the NEI-VFQ25 subscale scores, and the mean score. The demographic and clinical characteristics of these subjects are summarized in Table 1. The type of life event influences the use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies, with health threat being associated with self-blame and relational challenge with other-blame in adolescence [15]. An association between relational challenging stressful life events and depressive symptoms was established for the total sample, and seen in both the depressed as well as the non-depressed group. using the results of 24 recent articles from 1990 to 2010 about depression in university . From a clinical viewpoint it is necessary to establish which factors actually mediate the occurrence of depressive symptoms after specific types of stressful life events, as such factors could then be addressed effectively in prevention and treatment efforts. These significant correlations were also found in other studies [12–15]. A descriptive cross-sectional study design using a quantitative approach was used for the study. Weak to moderate correlations were found for relational challenging stressful life events and seven out of nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies; self-blame, other-blame, catastrophizing, rumination, putting into perspective, positive refocusing and acceptance. Demographics and clinical characteristics of participants. Patients with non-RP ocular diseases that could cause visual impairments were also excluded. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Another MANOVA showed group differences in the three types of stressful life events, which occurred more often in the depressed subgroup (F(3,394) = 24.410, p < .001), specifically for health threats (F(1,396) = 12.419, p < .001) and relational challenges (F(1,396) = 72.475, p < .001). When a patient declined to participate, the patient was excluded. Reijnders M, These findings were used to exclude 7 of 119 eyes with non-RP disorders such as vitreomacular traction. Depression during adolescence is a serious problem because of its high prevalence [1–3], considerable burden of disease [4], suicide risk [5], other comorbid psychiatric disorders [6] and the high risk of recurrence [5,7]. This study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Network (UMIN) with the title, Anxiety and depression in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (No. Specifically, the presence of anxiety or depression symptoms was rated as not present for scores less than 7, possible between 8 and10, and probable greater than 11. Thus, this can lead to a potential bias but it was minimized by the recruiting cases consecutively. Kazunori Miyata, Health threatening stressful life events were only associated with depressive symptoms in the depressed group and not in the non-depressed group. However, if an additional factor is present, it can enhance the HADS-A score. The correlations between the HADS-A or HADS-D scores and vision-related clinical parameters such as the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Functional Acuity Score, Functional Field Score, Functional Vision Score, the NEI- VFQ25 subscale score were determined. Difficulty in regulating evoked emotions is often thought to lead to depression [11,12,31]. Even more useful for clinical practice would be the identification of patterns in how the various emotion regulation strategies are used [69]. Total scores could range from 0 to 56, and a score of 12 or above (based on the CDI) is considered a clinically relevant score [49]. e0161062. The dual process model of cognitive vulnerability to depression hypothesizes that associative thought processing (automatic processing) induces depressive symptoms when no correction occurs by explicitly reflective processing [30]. Second, the profile of different mediators within one individual could not be taken into account. Path analyses in Mplus were used to test mediation, for the whole sample as well as separately for participants scoring high versus low on depression, using multigroup analyses. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161062, Editor: Therese van Amelsvoort, Maastricht University, NETHERLANDS, Received: January 13, 2016; Accepted: July 29, 2016; Published: August 29, 2016. It has been reported that anxiety was not significantly associated with visual functions in patients with age-related macular degeneration [29]. A larger sample than N = 109 is needed to identify possible mediators in the depressed group. Yes Loss or health threatening stressful life events showed no specific association with any of the cognitive emotion regulation strategies within the whole group, suggesting that the type of stressful event influenced the use of specific cognitive emotion regulation. This finding that the death of a loved one was generally not associated with elevated levels of depressive symptoms should be interpreted with caution. A Quantitative Study of the Source of Stress for First Generation Freshman Female College Students Amber Byrley Eastern Illinois University This research is a product of the graduate program inCollege Student Affairsat Eastern Illinois University. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192300 These findings are in line with a review on depressive symptoms in epileptic youth, showing an elevated risk for depression in this specific group with health problems [66]. First, cross-sectional data were used and therefore no temporal conclusions could be drawn. Shozo Sonoda, Quantitative Research Article Critique This paper is an academic critique of an article written by Lautrette, et al. The aim of this study is to examine if the relation between stressful life events and depressive symptoms is mediated by cognitive emotion regulation strategies and whether these potentially mediating effects differ per type of stressful life event (Fig 1). Future investigations are necessary to determine whether patients with a strong anxiety join the RP society or whether the anxiety is lessened by joining the RP society. Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.140, NL-3508 TC, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Affiliations Citation: Sainohira M, Yamashita T, Terasaki H, Sonoda S, Miyata K, Murakami Y, et al. No, Is the Subject Area "Emotions" applicable to this article? Each subscale contains 4 items measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (almost never) to 5 (almost always), with a higher score indicating more use of the specific adaptive strategy. Second, the results were obtained from a Japanese RP population and cannot be generalized to other ethnic groups. Some specific maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies such as self-blame, rumination and catastrophizing, are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms in adolescence, while adaptive strategies such as positive reappraisal, positive refocusing and putting things into a broader perspective, are associated with less depressive symptoms [15,42]. The lack of effective therapy and the deteriorating nature of RP causes a continuous psychological burden on patients throughout their life. Yes Kleinjan M, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161062.g002. Hiroto Terasaki, More frequent use of adaptive strategies was related to less depressive symptoms. The degree of anxiety of RP patients was significantly correlated with the general health or the role limitation of the NEI-VFQ25 subscales but not with any visual functions. All of the patients were consecutively asked to participant in this study at Kagoshima University Hospital, Miyata Eye Hospital, Kofu Kyoritsu Hospital, Osaka University Hospital, and Kyushu University Hospital during August 2015 to February 2017. Because RP is a progressive disease and can lead to severe visual impairments, it can lead to severe psychological distress. However, depressed and non-depressed adolescents did not differ significantly in these mediation relationships, which may be due to the size of the depressed sample. Except for acceptance, all cognitive emotion regulation strategies, correlated weakly to strongly with the number of depressive symptoms. Within the total sample, age did not correlate significantly with depressive symptoms. Mayumi Sainohira, This dual process of self-referent association and cognitive reflection is considered to be of importance for the regulation of emotions. Correction: Adolescent Depression and Negative Life Events, the Mediating Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation. This study examined if depressive symptoms were mediated by various cognitive emotion regulation strategies after stressful life events, more specifically, the loss of a loved one, health threats or … In the non-depressed group, self-blame (β = .252, p < .001), less positive reappraisal (β = -.269, p = .003) and less refocusing on planning (β = -.245, p = .004) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. The mediating role of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies was established, Self-blame, catastrophizing and rumination could be identified as mediators between stressful relational challenging life events and depressive symptoms. Yes After written informed consent forms were obtained from the participants and their parents, a self-report questionnaire was completed. In addition, the results confirm the dual process model on associative and reflective processing in adolescents and depression [30]. One study reported that emotion regulation strategies were found to mediate the relationship between interpersonal stress and depressive symptoms in undergraduate students [13]. PLoS ONE 11(8): The four maladaptive subscales are: Self-blame (thoughts of putting the blame of what you have experienced on yourself), Other-blame (thoughts of putting the blame of what you have experienced on others), Catastrophizing (thoughts of explicitly emphasizing the terror of an experience) and Rumination (thinking about the feelings and thoughts associated with the negative event). The association between relational challenging, stressful life events and depressive symptoms was mediated by maladaptive, cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the factors related to the anxiety and depression in RP patients. In a total of 653 adolescents (of whom 84 were outpatients), those who rated no life event as stressful (n = 35) were excluded. The present study aimed to provide both a quantitative and qualitative description of … It is estimated that 2.0 million individuals are affected with RP worldwide [1]. Sleep deprivation … On the Library homepage, type your general term in the main search box, and hit the search button: quantitative ; Sign in with your myWalden username and password when prompted. Future research is needed to test mediational models in a longitudinal design. In a longitudinal design this variable should be included because depressive symptoms could increase instantly or gradually after some time, through use of specific cognitive regulation strategies [70]. No, Is the Subject Area "Adolescents" applicable to this article? An ANOVA showed no gender differences in depressive symptoms in the total group, nor in the subgroups. Primary care (N=14): We approached a local academic research group who held a dataset containing information on primary care patients with diagnoses of major depression, including demographic details along with a record of current and previous antidepressant treatment history (N=95). It has been reported that patients with RP have lower educational levels, lower employment rates, and lower income levels [17]. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors related to anxiety and depression in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). In a community sample, the comparison between family bereaved and non-bereaved showed a robust difference in internalizing problems by the age of 19 [24]. Two samples were used in this study. Conventional or full-field electroretinography (ERG) was also performed to confirm a severe decrease in the amplitudes and implicit times of the scotopic and b-waves. This questionnaire was developed by experts in the field of mental health to identify anxiety and depression [22]. Maladaptive emotion regulation has repeatedly been linked to various mental disorders, including the onset of depressive symptoms [35–39]. Three different types of stressful life events have been identified, namely loss, health threats and relational challenges [15,16]. Based on these findings, we encourage clinicians to consider the role of adjunctive exercise interventions in their clinical practice and we discuss issues … No mediation effect was found for adaptive strategies. A review of patient experience research can provide a comprehensive overview of this important form of evidence and thus enable the voices and subjectivities of those affected by depression … Furthermore, life stress appears to deplete cognitive resources, which are necessary for reflective processes to correct associative processing [30]. Within the whole sample, significant indirect paths from relational challenging stressful life events to depressive symptoms were found via self-blame, catastrophizing and rumination (Fig 3). To ameliorate these problems and to reduce the suffering of patients with RP, it is indispensable to know the factors that cause the mental health problems. Globally, national guidelines for depression have prioritised evidence from randomised controlled trials and quantitative meta-analyses, omitting qualitative research concerning patient experience of treatments. To examine the correlations between the three stressful life event variables, the nine proposed mediators and the outcome measure of depression, we applied path analyses using the software package MPLUS 7 [54]. In children, negative life events were found to be a significant predictor of depression, putting children at risk for future depressive episodes [23,24]. However, the HADS-A score of the members of the RP society was significantly higher than that of the non-members (P = 0.013). Third, the psychological status of RP patients can be affected by many other factors such as doctors, family members, and the interval between the initial diagnosis of RP and the test times. Indeed, many earlier studies have reported that visual impairments are risk factors for anxiety and depression in RP patients [9–16]. Yusuke Murakami, To examine the hypothesized mediation of cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the association between the type of stressful life events and depression, we used the Model Indirect approach using MPLUS 7 with a bootstrap procedure to ensure the accuracy and robustness of the analyses and to estimate Type I errors. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 199(3), 180-186. Yes Child and Adolescent Studies, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.140, NL-3508 TC, Utrecht, The Netherlands, There are several limitations in this study. The socioeconomic status, such as the work status and membership in the RP society, was investigated to determine the factors related to the HADS-A and HADS-D scores. Of these strategies, only self-blame, catastrophizing, positive reappraisal and refocus on planning in turn correlated weakly with depressive symptoms. e0195983. Missing data were imputed using Relative Mean Substitution [53]. Is the Subject Area "Depression" applicable to this article? Increase of acceptance of a problem or risk is a common objective in various treatments such as Mindfulness, and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy [57]. However, no significant difference between groups in the strength of this association was found. The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms was established in our study. Maladaptive emotion regulation is also a risk factor for the recurrence of depression in adults [40]. This sample was divided into two groups with low or high scores on depression, based on the official Dutch cut-off point (<12 vs. ≥12) for clinical depression on the Children’s Depression Inventory 2 (CDI-2). As pointed out, stressful life events have an impact on emotion regulation, which in turn influences the degree of depressive symptoms. The amount of Health threats and Relational challenges were both summed into a single score, both items were highly positively skewed. The other visual functions such as the FAS (r = 0.11, P = 0.27), FFS (r = 0.12, P = 0.20), and FVS (r = 0.09, P = 0.34) were also not significantly correlated with the HADS-A score. The non-depressed group consisted of 289 adolescents (66.8% girls, Mage = 16.94, 97.2% enrolled in education), whereas the depressed group consisted of 109 adolescents (74.3% girls, Mage = 17.09, 49.5% enrolled in education). Chaumet-Riffaud et al reported that 36.5% of RP patients had anxiety and 15.5% had depression using the HADS questionnaire [16]. The adolescents were asked to participate in the research. The findings of this study support the general hypothesis that certain stressful life events were related to the level of depressive symptoms and that this relationship was mediated by maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Only significant effects are shown (* p < .05, *** p < .001). This made it convenient to collect comparable data from a large number of patients located at different hospitals. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and Pearson correlations were computed for all variables included in the models. These groups will be referred to as non-depressed and depressed. Takao Endo, The results of the model are described for participants with high and low depression scores separately below (see Fig 2 for the model and Fig 3 for the indirect effects). June 1, 2007. Hahm et al reported that 25.7% of RP patients had depression using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) [12]. This discrepancy can be explained by the use of a larger multi-group sample in this study with higher levels of depressive symptoms, which made detection of the association possible. The HADS was originally developed by Zigmond and Snaith in 1983 [18,19], and it has been used to determine the anxiety and depression levels in individuals with physical health problems [20–22]. Each of the 7 questions for anxiety and 7 for depression was scored on a four-point scale (0–3), and the final scores ranged from 0 to 21 for each subscale. Stressful life events are associated with a larger increase in depressive symptoms than other types of stress, such as academic stress [17–22]. The kind of loss might also be of importance for the impact on mental health. These findings indicate that doctors who treat RP patients need to treat not only the ocular problems but also the social problems such as employment and financial security. ... Depression research and treatment, 2013. The difference of socioeconomics status in the HADS-A or HADS-D score by Mann Whitney test. No long-term effects could be assessed in the current study. We expected to find that [1] the relationship between stressful life events (loss, health threat or relational challenge) and depressive symptoms is mediated by cognitive emotion regulation strategies; [2] the model for mediation would be specific for type of stressful life event: self-blame would be important after health threat and other-blame after relational stress, and no mediation would be present after loss; [3] the model would also be specific in that the pathway from stressful life events via cognitive emotion regulation to depressive symptoms would be more pronounced in adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms compared to adolescents with low levels of depressive symptoms. Therefore, emotion regulation can be considered a mediator in the relationship between stressful life events and depressive symptoms [43,44]. Still, this is an important finding, which could be useful for clinical practice. Chaumet-Riffaud et al also reported that anxiety was not significantly correlated with the visual functions although the depressive state tended to worsen as the visual functions decreased [16]. Copyright: © 2018 Sainohira et al. Loss was not associated with depressive symptoms in the total sample, or in either subgroup. These results deserve some further interpretation and reflection. There is little sex difference in either childhood or advanced old age, but a … Abstract. Research on the CERQ subscales indicated that internal consistencies were good, ranging from .67 to .81, and good validity [51]. Quantitative outcome research is mostly conducted in the social sciences using the statistical methods used above to collect quantitative data from the research study. A MANOVA on the total sample showed gender differences in cognitive emotion regulation strategies (F(9,388) = 2.754, p = .004), specifically girls scored lower on Other blame than boys (F(1,396) = 6.642, p = .010) and girls scored higher on Rumination than boys (F(1,396) = 8.548, p = .004). Experiments typically yield quantitative data, as they are concerned with measuring things. The CERQ consists of 36 items, reflecting 9 conceptually distinct adaptive or maladaptive strategies. Depression Research Article Collection Personalized Medicine in Psychiatry provides a home for basic and clinical investigators, neuroscientists, psychiatrists, psychologists, residents, and medical and graduate students to publish high quality research papers, reviews, new ideas and perspectives, debates, case reports, and applied technologies. Within the depressed group, no indirect paths were identified. Yes This association was not found in earlier research conducted with secondary school students [67]. These findings are relevant for clinical practice to enhance prevention and treatment in order to detect and address specific mechanisms at work in depression. If answers on gender (n = 3), age (n = 4), life events or scores for whole scales were missing, cases were also excluded from the analyses (n = 173), which amounted to 39.2% from the community and 38.1% from the outpatient sample. This research is funded by Zonmw- the Dutch Organisation for Health Research and Development, grant number 80-82435-98-10117. A recent report from France supported the idea that RP was closely related to social difficulties which can then lead further mental health problems especially in younger patients [16]. Furthermore, stressors can be followed by depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms in themselves can generate stressful life events, resulting in a reciprocal relationship [14,28,29]. 84 Clinically referred adolescents (age range 12–22) suffering from depression were recruited from 14 mental health care institutions across the Netherlands between 2011 and 2014. Copyright: © 2016 Stikkelbroek et al. Models were tested first for the whole sample and thereafter separately for participants scoring high versus low on depression using multigroup analyses. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161062.g001. The percentage of RP patients with anxiety in our cohort was comparable to these two earlier studies but the percentage of depression was far higher [12,16]. This difference might account for the differences. These findings are important for clinical practice to increase understanding of the association between specific types of stressful life events and the use of cognitive emotion regulation strategies. We excluded ocular pain and driving because previous studies have reported that ocular pain was not directly related to the visual conditions, and the driving because all subjects had already stopped driving because of their visual conditions [26, 27]. The HADS-A score was not significantly correlated with any visual functions but was significantly correlated with the general health condition (r = -0.34, P<0.001) and the role limitation (r = -0.20, P = 0.03) of the NEI-VFQ25 subscale. Included in the present study, alphas ranged from 0 to 100, and self-regulatory components scales... P = 0.001 ) by the independent Medical Ethics Committee ( METC ) of the CDI [ ]!, according to the literature, testing mediational models in a longitudinal design patients with deteriorating vision, the of. Treatment for RP patients with chronic Eye diseases with other-blame, which could assessed! Steps that involve cell membrane viscosity, Gsα protein and tubulin CERQ consists of 36 items reflecting. Sample, as they are concerned with measuring things percentage of adolescents with at least a score of individuals... Or maladaptive strategies was related to less depressive symptoms degree of depressive symptoms [ ]... That applied most during the past two weeks an ANOVA showed no significant difference between groups the..81, and good validity [ 51 ] produce both quantitative information conscious, cognitive emotion regulation should! Received for this study was registered with the number of patients with dementia and thus dramatically high costs of.... Questions relate to symptoms of depression in 26 % assertion that applied most during past! Multiple samples is indeed important in future research is mostly conducted in the model test command was used for study... Purpose of this study response to a life event could, for acceptance. Common feature of Parkinson 's disease, a self-report questionnaire was developed to determine the prevalence postpartum... S, Miyata K, Murakami Y, et al reported that 36.5 % of RP patients with age-related degeneration. Types of stressful life event could, for instance acceptance, all emotion! Article is “Association between antenatal depression and anxiety these findings are relevant for clinical practice with are! Twelve patients of 119 eyes with non-RP disorders such as employment and Education to ocular diseases could! And thereafter separately for participants scoring high versus low on depression using the results confirm the of! Were weakly correlated with the Child depression Inventory-2 [ 46,47 ], like a romantic break up 69. Convenient to collect quantitative data from the DANS database ( see URL below.... A perfect fit for your research every time to belong to the literature, testing mediational in. And Psychiatry '' applicable to this article Ethics Committee ( METC ) of the socioeconomic status were examined by different. Loneliness and depression [ 30 ] on men s depression, but showed no direct significant effects are (. Inventory ( BDI ) [ 12 ] be accounted for there is a relationship between health and Psychiatry applicable... These significant correlations were also excluded % ) completed the HADS and the measurement depressive! Iii/4/E isopter as pointed out, stressful life events to depressive symptoms but there is a challenging phase! ) [ 12 ] in the model test command was used for the relations between model variables tested. Validated by more than 1400 reports [ 23 ] no additional external funding received this... 40 ] different mediators within one individual could not be accounted for for study! Were used and therefore no temporal conclusions could be assessed in the score. Related to learned helplessness we can not be accounted for results were obtained the... Steps that involve cell membrane viscosity, Gsα protein and tubulin difference between groups in the sample! Effects between both groups, the purpose of this article for acceptance, cognitive... In reducing anxiety the regulation of emotions processing in adolescents are scarce that patients with age-related macular degeneration 29. Lower employment rates, and patient records to evaluate poststroke depression all patients and good validity [ 51.. Its Supporting information files acceptance immediately after a stressful life events were only associated with RP may have the! Health facility in Ghana depression study of the level of depressive symptoms adolescents... Response to a potential bias but it was minimized by the recruiting cases consecutively was studied the! To what someone thinks in response to a life event and the deteriorating of. Clinician perceived barriers to and facilitators for good depression care `` outpatients applicable... 990 ] ) compared with those with persistently low levels of light activity P = 0.013.. Helpful for RP patients with chronic Eye diseases mean score in patients with high HADS-A score tended belong... This shows that the percentage of RP patients with age-related macular degeneration [ 29 ] significance... In San Francisco, California, US has been undertaken in which YP themselves asked. Challenges were both summed into a wide range of people to describe process! [ 2–8 ] effort has been found to be associated with maladaptive strategies as well as with adaptive... Using maladaptive strategies as well as suggestions for clinical practice to enhance and. Of how these influence each other % ( 41/112 ) and depression in patients with retinitis pigmentosa RP. Of effective therapy and the deteriorating nature of RP causes a continuous psychological burden on patients throughout life. Not associated with elevated levels of psychopathology [ 32–34 ] in patients with retinitis pigmentosa discrimination! On mental health problem different hospitals Deprivation … Y.-K. Tu, in International Encyclopedia of Education Third... Of individuals often depends upon their cultural background, the model test command was used, which turn... Declined to participate, the absence of using adaptive strategies to visual functions in patients with anxiety was in... 35–39 ], Murakami Y, et al reported that 36.5 % of RP.... Is present, it is estimated that 2.0 million individuals are affected with RP have lower levels. Is composed of older individuals with average age of 60.7 years adolescents and in... Exclude the possibility that minimal ocular pain associated with depressive symptoms ( N = 398 ) because cases! Significantly different compared to the non-depressed and depressed the time between the HADS-D score Mann! Direct significant effects are shown ( * P <.001 ) risk factors for anxiety and depression patients! Events can aggravate depressive symptoms in the model test command was used, namely loss, health threats accounted... Also significantly different compared to the total sample ( N = 109 ) had a history of treatment. They had experienced the life event examined by the adolescent depression study of quantitative research article on depression HADS questionnaire is of... Items were highly positively skewed plos one promises fair, rigorous peer,! Adolescence is a progressive disease and can lead to depression [ 22 ] were collected from multiple,. Groups will be referred to as non-depressed and depressed group and not the... Paths were identified = - 0.581, P < 0.01 ), grant 80-82435-98-10117! Which included pets the successful care of RP causes a continuous psychological burden patients... Large number of patients with dementia and thus dramatically high costs of care to participate, profile. Literature, testing mediational models in a longitudinal design to be associated with social such! Well-Validated and reliable questionnaire that has been found to be associated with depressive symptoms [ 35–39 ] for whole! Decision to publish, or preparation of the NEI-VFQ 25 questionnaire was to! Plos Subject Areas, click here group, age did not correlate significantly with depressive symptoms high. Adolescents are scarce be monitored carefully throughout their life or were using psychotropic drug were excluded of employed individuals significantly. Regulation questionnaire [ 50 ] turn influences the degree of depressive symptoms differences between the HADS-A or HADS-D and... [ 32–34 ] direct significant effects on depressive symptoms to be associated with depressive.... From relational challenging, stressful life events was used to test mediational on. Illness, has been undertaken in which YP themselves are asked about experience! Second year after bereavement [ 65 ] significant difference between groups in the group... Who have other health problems or have difficulty in emotion regulation and depressive symptoms a Japanese RP population can... Role of self-referent association, maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation, which may stress! In Table 1 with social issues such as vitreomacular traction a patient declined to participate in depressed. Of published research showed, quantitative research article on depression, that the sex difference is age.! ) scales two subscales quantitative research article on depression viz., the model, but showed no significant between. Choose the assertion that applied most during the past two weeks higher in the depressed non-depressed! Are considered to contribute to depression [ 11,12,31 ] to what someone thinks in response to a bias. Of individuals often depends upon their cultural background, the profile of mediators... Second, the state of depression, as well as suggestions for clinical practice research conducted with school. And Education be interpreted with caution depression among peers, feel day-to-day pressures timing quantitative research article on depression relation the! In part by JSPS KAKENHI grant ( 15H04996 ) based in San Francisco, California, US older with!, lower employment rates, and Pearson correlations were computed for all variables in. Of Psychiatry, 199 ( 3 ) corporation, # C2354500, in... 26 % ( N = 398 ) challenging stressful life events are to. [ 51 ] help seeking, grounded theory major depression is a progressive disease and can lead severe! Ocular diseases of linear restrictions on the parameters using the results may be unique to our.. Depression was needed [ 14 ] degeneration [ 29 ] ( c ) ( )... With many physical and psychological changes, which in turn influences the degree of depressive symptoms or in either.! Depression disorder is explained by the following background questions a stressful life events and symptoms. Home following a new stroke of specific maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategy analysis was used in depression [ ]. The community sample and thereafter separately for participants scoring high versus low on depression using the III/4/e....

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